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Nmap Network Scanning

Using Customized Data Files

Any or all of the Nmap data files may be replaced with versions customized to the user's liking. They can only be replaced in whole—you cannot specify changes that will be merged with the original files at runtime. When Nmap looks for each file, it searches by name in many directories and selects the first one found. This is the analogous to the way your Unix shell finds programs you ask to execute by searching through the directories in your PATH one at a time in order. The following list gives the Nmap directory search order. It shows that an nmap-services found in the directory specified by --datadir will be used in preference to one found in ~/.nmap/ because the former is searched first.

Nmap data file directory search order

  1. If the --datadir option was specified, check the directory given as its argument.

  2. If the NMAPDIR environmental variable is set, check that directory.

  3. If Nmap is not running on Windows, search in ~/.nmap of the user running Nmap. It tries the real user ID's home directory, and then the effective UID's if they differ.

  4. Check the directory in which the Nmap binary resides. On non-Windows platforms, additionally check the same directory with ../share/nmap appended.

  5. Check the compiled-in NMAPDATADIR directory. That value is defined to c:\nmap on Windows, and <$prefix>/share/nmap on Unix. <$prefix> is /usr/local for the default source build and /usr for the Linux RPMs. The <$prefix> can be changed by giving ./configure the --prefix option when compiling the source.

Nmap does not check for files in the current working directory (.) for the same security reasons that . should not appear first on your shell execution PATH. On a shared system, a malicious user could place bogus data files in a shared directory such as /tmp. Those files could be malformed, causing Nmap to complain and exit, or they could cause Nmap to skip important ports. If Nmap tried ., other users who happened to run Nmap in that shared directory would get the bogus versions. This could also happen by accident if you inadvertently ran Nmap in a directory that happened to have a file named nmap-services (or one of the other ones). Users who really want Nmap to try the current directory early may set the environment variable NMAPDIR to . at their own risk.

This list shows the many choices users have when deciding how to replace a file with their own customized version. The option I usually recommend is to place the customized files in a special directory named appropriately for the change. For example, an nmap-services stripped to contain just the hundred most common ports could be placed in ~/nmap-fewports. Then specify this directory with the --datadir option. This ensures that the customized files are only used intentionally. Since the Nmap output-to-file formats include the Nmap command-line used, you will know which files were used when reviewing the logs later.

Another option is to simply edit the original in NMAPDATADIR. This is rarely recommended, as the edited file will likely be overwritten the next time Nmap is upgraded. Additionally, this makes it hard to use the original files if you suspect that your replacements are causing a problem. This also makes it difficult to compare your version with the original to recall what you changed.

A third option is to place the customized files in your Unix ~/.nmap directory. Of course you should only insert files that you have changed. The others will still be retrieved from NMAPDATADIR as usual. This is very convenient, as Nmap will use the customized files implicitly whenever you run it. That can be a disadvantage as well. Users sometimes forget the files exist. When they upgrade Nmap to a version with newer data files, the old copies in ~/.nmap will still be used, reducing the quality of results.

Setting the NMAPDIR environment variable to the directory with files is another alternative. This can be useful when testing a new version of Nmap. Suppose you obtain Nmap version 5.21, notice the huge list of changes, and decide to test it out before replacing your current known-working version. You might compile it in ~/src/nmap-5.21, but execute it there and Nmap tries to read the data files from /usr/local/share/nmap. Those are the old versions, since Nmap 5.21 has not yet been installed. Simply set NMAPDIR to ~/src/nmap-5.21, test to your heart's content, and then perform the make install. A disadvantage to using NMAPDIR regularly is that the directory name is not recorded in Nmap output files like it is when --datadir is used instead.

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