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Nmap Network Scanning

Dealing with Misidentified and Unidentified Hosts

While Nmap has a huge database, it cannot detect everything. Nmap has no chance to detect most toasters, refrigerators, chairs, or automobiles because they have no IP stack. Yet I wouldn't rule any of these out, given the ever-expanding list of connected devices. The Nmap fingerprint DB includes plenty of game consoles, phones, thermometers, cameras, interactive toys, and media players.

Having an IP address is necessary but not sufficient to guarantee a proper fingerprint. Nmap may still guess wrong or fail to produce any guess at all. Here are some suggestions for improving your results:

Upgrade to the latest Nmap

Many Linux distributions and other operating systems ship with ancient versions of Nmap. The Nmap OS database is improved with almost every release, so check your version number by running nmap -V and then compare that to the latest available from http://nmap.org/download.html. Installing the newest version takes only a few minutes on most platforms.

Scan all ports

When Nmap detects OS detection problems against a certain host, it will issue warnings. One of the most common is: Warning: OS detection will be MUCH less reliable because we did not find at least 1 open and 1 closed TCP port. It is possible that such ports really are unavailable on the machine, but retrying your scan with -p- to scan all ports may find some that are responsive for OS detection. Doing a UDP scan (-sU) too can help even more, though it will slow the scan substantially.

Try a more aggressive guess

If Nmap says there are no matches close enough to print, something is probably wrong. Maybe a firewall or NAT box in the way is modifying the probe or response packets. This can cause a hybrid situation where one group of tests look like they are from one OS, while another set look completely different. Adding the --osscan-guess may give more clues as to what is running.

Scan from a different location

The more network hops your packet has to go through to reach its target, the greater the chances that a network device will modify (or drop) the probe or response. NAT gateways, firewalls, and especially port forwarding can confuse OS detection. If you are scanning the IP of a load balancing device which simply redirects packets to a diverse network of servers, it isn't even clear what the correct OS detection result would be.

Many ISPs filter traffic to bad ports, and others use transparent proxies to redirect certain ports to their own servers. The port 25 or 80 you think are open on your target may actually be spoofed from your ISP to connect to ISP proxy servers. Another behavior which can confuse OS detection is when firewalls spoof TCP reset packets as if they are coming from the destination host. This is particularly common from port 113 (identd). Both the reset spoofing and transparent proxies can often be detected by noticing that every machine on a target network seems to exhibit the behavior—even those which otherwise seem to be down. If you detect any such nonsense, be sure to exclude these ports from your scan so they don't taint your results. You may also want to try from a completely different network location. The closer you are to the target, the more accurate the results will be. In a perfect case, you would always scan the target from the same network segment it resides on.

When Nmap Guesses Wrong

Occasionally Nmap will report an OS guess which you know is wrong. The errors are usually minor (such as reporting a machine running Linux 2.4.16 as Linux kernel 2.4.8 - 2.4.15), but there have been reports of Nmap being completely off (such as reporting your web server as an AppleWriter printer). When you encounter such problems (minor or major), please report them so everyone can benefit. The only reason the Nmap DB is so comprehensive is that thousands of users have spent a few minutes each to submit new information. Please follow these instructions:

Have a recent version of Nmap

Run nmap -V to determine which version of Nmap you have. You don't need to be running the absolute latest version of Nmap (though that would be ideal), but make sure your version is 4.20 or higher because we only need second generation OS fingerprints, not the old style produced by previous versions. You can determine the latest available version of Nmap by visiting http://nmap.org/download.html. If you upgrade, you might find that the mis-identification has already been fixed.

Be absolutely certain you know what is running

Invalid corrections can corrupt the OS DB. If you aren't certain exactly what is running on the remote machine, please find out before submitting.

Generate a fingerprint

Run the command nmap -O -sV -T4 -d <target>, where <target> is the misidentified system in question. Look at the OS detection results to ensure that the misidentification is still present. If you are scanning the target system over IPv6, add the -6 option as well.

If the Nmap output for the host OS results says (JUST GUESSING), it is expected that results may be a little off. Don't submit a correction in this case.

Otherwise, the map command should have produced results including the line OS fingerprint:. Below that is the fingerprint (a series of lines which each start with OS:).

Check that OS detection works against other hosts

Try scanning a couple other hosts on the target network which you know have a different OS. If they aren't detected properly, maybe there is some network obstruction between the systems which is corrupting the packets.

If you have gotten this far and are still able to submit, good for you! Please submit the information at http://insecure.org/cgi-bin/submit.cgi?corr-os

When Nmap Fails to Find a Match and Prints a Fingerprint

When Nmap detects that OS detection conditions seem ideal and yet it finds no exact matches, it will print out a message like this:

No OS matches for host (If you know what OS is running on it, see
http://nmap.org/submit/ ).
TCP/IP fingerprint:
OS:SCAN(V=5.05BETA1%D=8/23%OT=22%CT=1%CU=42341%PV=N%DS=0%DC=L%G=Y%TM=4A91CB
OS:90%P=i686-pc-linux-gnu)SEQ(SP=C9%GCD=1%ISR=CF%TI=Z%CI=Z%II=I%TS=A)OPS(O1
OS:=M400CST11NW5%O2=M400CST11NW5%O3=M400CNNT11NW5%O4=M400CST11NW5%O5=M400CS
OS:T11NW5%O6=M400CST11)WIN(W1=8000%W2=8000%W3=8000%W4=8000%W5=8000%W6=8000)
OS:ECN(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=8018%O=M400CNNSNW5%CC=N%Q=)T1(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%S=O%A=S+
OS:%F=AS%RD=0%Q=)T2(R=N)T3(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=8000%S=O%A=S+%F=AS%O=M400CST11NW
OS:5%RD=0%Q=)T4(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=0%S=A%A=Z%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)T5(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W
OS:=0%S=Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)T6(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=0%S=A%A=Z%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)
OS:T7(R=Y%DF=Y%T=40%W=0%S=Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)U1(R=Y%DF=N%T=40%IPL=164%U
OS:N=0%RIPL=G%RID=G%RIPCK=G%RUCK=G%RUD=G)IE(R=Y%DFI=N%T=40%CD=S)

Please consider submitting the fingerprint so that all Nmap users can benefit. It only takes a minute or two and it may mean you don't need to see that ugly message again when you scan the host with the next Nmap version! Simply visit the URL Nmap provides for instructions.

If Nmap finds no matches and yet prints no fingerprint, conditions were not ideal. Even if you obtain the fingerprint through debug mode or XML output, please don't submit it unless Nmap asks you to (as in the previous example).

Modifying the nmap-os-db Database Yourself

People often ask about integrating a fingerprint themselves rather than (or in addition to) submitting it to Nmap.Org. While we don't offer detailed instructions or scripts for this, it is certainly possible after you become intimately familiar with the section called “Understanding an Nmap Fingerprint”. I hope this is useful for your purposes, but there is no need to send your own reference fingerprint creations to us. We can only integrate raw subject fingerprint submissions from the web form.

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