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File smb-brute

Script types: hostrule
Categories: intrusive, brute
Download: http://nmap.org/svn/scripts/smb-brute.nse

User Summary

Attempts to guess username/password combinations over SMB, storing discovered combinations for use in other scripts. Every attempt will be made to get a valid list of users and to verify each username before actually using them. When a username is discovered, besides being printed, it is also saved in the Nmap registry so other Nmap scripts can use it. That means that if you're going to run smb-brute.nse, you should run other smb scripts you want. This checks passwords in a case-insensitive way, determining case after a password is found, for Windows versions before Vista.

This script is specifically targeted towards security auditors or penetration testers. One example of its use, suggested by Brandon Enright, was hooking up smb-brute.nse to the database of usernames and passwords used by the Conficker worm (the password list can be found at http://www.skullsecurity.org/wiki/index.php/Passwords, among other places. Then, the network is scanned and all systems that would be infected by Conficker are discovered.

From the penetration tester perspective its use is pretty obvious. By discovering weak passwords on SMB, a protocol that's well suited for bruteforcing, access to a system can be gained. Further, passwords discovered against Windows with SMB might also be used on Linux or MySQL or custom Web applications. Discovering a password greatly beneficial for a pen-tester.

This script uses a lot of little tricks that I (Ron Bowes) describe in detail in a blog posting, http://www.skullsecurity.org/blog/?p=164. The tricks will be summarized here, but that blog is the best place to learn more.

Usernames and passwords are initially taken from the unpwdb library. If possible, the usernames are verified as existing by taking advantage of Windows' odd behaviour with invalid username and invalid password responses. As soon as it is able, this script will download a full list of usernames from the server and replace the unpw usernames with those. This enables the script to restrict itself to actual accounts only.

When an account is discovered, it's saved in the smb module (which uses the Nmap registry). If an account is already saved, the account's privileges are checked; accounts with administrator privileges are kept over accounts without. The specific method for checking is by calling GetShareInfo("IPC$"), which requires administrative privileges. Once this script is finished (all other smb scripts depend on it, it'll run first), other scripts will use the saved account to perform their checks.

The blank password is always tried first, followed by "special passwords" (such as the username and the username reversed). Once those are exhausted, the unpwdb password list is used.

One major goal of this script is to avoid account lockouts. This is done in a few ways. First, when a lockout is detected, unless you user specifically overrides it with the smblockout argument, the scan stops. Second, all usernames are checked with the most common passwords first, so with not-too-strict lockouts (10 invalid attempts), the 10 most common passwords will still be tried. Third, one account, called the canary, "goes out ahead"; that is, three invalid attempts are made (by default) to ensure that it's locked out before others are.

In addition to active accounts, this script will identify valid passwords for accounts that are disabled, guest-equivalent, and require password changes. Although these accounts can't be used, it's good to know that the password is valid. In other cases, it's impossible to tell a valid password (if an account is locked out, for example). These are displayed, too. Certain accounts, such as guest or some guest-equivalent, will permit any password. This is also detected. When possible, the SMB protocol is used to its fullest to get maximum information.

When possible, checks are done using a case-insensitive password, then proper case is determined with a fairly efficient bruteforce. For example, if the actual password is "PassWord", then "password" will work and "PassWord" will be found afterwards (on the 14th attempt out of a possible 256 attempts, with the current algorithm).

Script Arguments

smblockout

This argument will force the script to continue if it locks out an account or thinks it will lock out an account.

canaries

Sets the number of tests to do to attempt to lock out the first account. This will lock out the first account without locking out the rest of the accounts. The default is 3, which will only trigger strict lockouts, but will also bump the canary account up far enough to detect a lockout well before other accounts are hit.

brutelimit

Limits the number of usernames checked in the script. In some domains, it's possible to end up with 10,000+ usernames on each server. By default, this will be 5000, which should be higher than most servers and also prevent infinite loops or other weird things. This will only affect the user list pulled from the server, not the username list.

passdb, unpwdb.passlimit, unpwdb.timelimit, unpwdb.userlimit, userdb

See the documentation for the unpwdb library.

randomseed, smbbasic, smbport, smbsign

See the documentation for the smb library.

smbdomain, smbhash, smbnoguest, smbpassword, smbtype, smbusername

See the documentation for the smbauth library.

Example Usage

nmap --script smb-brute.nse -p445 <host>
sudo nmap -sU -sS --script smb-brute.nse -p U:137,T:139 <host>

Script Output

Host script results:
| smb-brute:
|   bad name:test => Valid credentials
|   consoletest:test => Valid credentials, password must be changed at next logon
|   guest:<anything> => Valid credentials, account disabled
|   mixcase:BuTTeRfLY1 => Valid credentials
|   test:password1 => Valid credentials, account expired
|   this:password => Valid credentials, account cannot log in at current time
|   thisisaverylong:password => Valid credentials
|   thisisaverylongname:password => Valid credentials
|   thisisaverylongnamev:password => Valid credentials
|_  web:TeSt => Valid credentials, account disabled

Requires


Author: Ron Bowes

License: Same as Nmap--See http://nmap.org/book/man-legal.html

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