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Nmap Network Scanning

Nmap - Referencna prirucka (Man Page,Slovak translation)


Name

nmap — Nastroj na skumanie siete a scanner bezpecnosti/portov

Synopsis

nmap [ <Typ scanu> ...] [ <Moznosti> ] { <Specifikacia cielovej stanice> }

Opis

Nmap (Network Mapper) je open-source nastrojom na skumanie siete a kontrolu bezpecnosti. Bol vyvinuty s ohladom na rychle scanovanie velkych sieti, hoci funguje vyborne aj pri nasadeni proti jednotlivym hostitelom. Nmap neobvyklymi sposobmi pouziva neupravene IP pakety na urcenie hostitelskych stanic v sieti, sluzieb, ktore (aplikacia Nmap neobvyklym sposobom pouziva neupravene IP pakety na urcenie cisla a verzie) tieto hostitelske stanice ponukaju, na akom operacnom systeme (a verziach OS) bezia, aky typ paketovych filtrov alebo firewallu je pouzity, a mnoho dalsich charakteristickych veci. Hoci sa Nmap bezne pouziva na vykonavanie kontrol bezpecnosti, mnoho systemovych a sietovych administratorov ho vyuzije aj pri obvyklych ulohach ako napriklad obsah siete, sprava casovych rozvrhnuti upgradeovania sluzby ci monitorovanie uptimu hostitelskej stanice alebo sluzby.

Vystup aplikacie Nmap je tvoreny zoznamom scanovanych cielovych stanic s dodatocnymi informaciami o kazdom z nich v zavislosti na pouzitych moznostiach. Klucovou medzi tymito informaciami je tabulka zaujimavych portov . Tato tabulka obsahuje zoznam cisla portu a protokolu, nazov sluzby a stav. Stav moze byt bud otvoreny, filtrovany, zatvoreny, alebo nefiltrovany. Otvoreny Open znamena, ze aplikacia na cielovom pocitaci nacuva spojeniam alebo paketom na tomto porte. Filtrovany znamena, ze nejaky firewall, filter alebo sietova prekazka blokuje port takym sposobom, ze Nmap nedokaze urcit, ci je port otvoreny alebo zatvoreny. Zatvorene porty neobsahuju ziadne na nich nacuvajuce aplikaciu, aj ked by sa mohli kedykolvek otvorit. Porty su oznacovane ako nefiltrovane ak reaguju na testovanie Nmapom, no Nmap nedokaze urcit, ci su otvorene alebo zatvorene. Nmap ohlasi kombinaciu stavov otvoreny|filtrovany a zatvoreny|filtrovany ak nedokaze urcit, ktory z dvoch stavov zodpoveda portu. . Ak bola vyzadovana detekcia verzie, tabulka portov moze takisto obsahovat podrobnosti o verzii softwaru. Ak je vyzadovany scan protokolu IP (-sO), Nmap poskytne informacie namiesto nacuvajucich portov informacie o podporovanych protokoloch IP.

Okrem tabulky zaujimavych portov dokaze Nmap poskytnut dalsie informacie o cielovych staniciach, vratane reverznych nazvov DNS, odhadov operacneho systemu, typoch zariadeni a MAC adries.

Typicky Nmap scan je zobrazeny na tomto mieste.Example 1, “Ukazkovy Nmap scan”. Jedinymi parametrami Nmapu pouzitymi v tomto priklade su -A, na povolenie detekcie OS a verzie,-T4 kvoli rychlejsiemu behu programu, a dva hostitelske nazvy cielovych stanic.

Example 1. Ukazkovy Nmap scan

# nmap -A -T4 scanme.nmap.org playground

Starting nmap ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ )
Interesting ports on scanme.nmap.org (205.217.153.62):
(The 1663 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: filtered)
PORT    STATE  SERVICE VERSION
22/tcp  open   ssh     OpenSSH 3.9p1 (protocol 1.99)
53/tcp  open   domain
70/tcp  closed gopher
80/tcp  open   http    Apache httpd 2.0.52 ((Fedora))
113/tcp closed auth
Device type: general purpose
Running: Linux 2.4.X|2.5.X|2.6.X
OS details: Linux 2.4.7 - 2.6.11, Linux 2.6.0 - 2.6.11
Uptime 33.908 days (since Thu Jul 21 03:38:03 2005)

Interesting ports on playground.nmap.org (192.168.0.40):
(The 1659 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
PORT     STATE SERVICE       VERSION
135/tcp  open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
139/tcp  open  netbios-ssn
389/tcp  open  ldap?
445/tcp  open  microsoft-ds  Microsoft Windows XP microsoft-ds
1002/tcp open  windows-icfw?
1025/tcp open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
1720/tcp open  H.323/Q.931   CompTek AquaGateKeeper
5800/tcp open  vnc-http      RealVNC 4.0 (Resolution 400x250; VNC TCP port: 5900)
5900/tcp open  vnc           VNC (protocol 3.8)
MAC Address: 00:A0:CC:63:85:4B (Lite-on Communications)
Device type: general purpose
Running: Microsoft Windows NT/2K/XP
OS details: Microsoft Windows XP Pro RC1+ through final release
Service Info: OSs: Windows, Windows XP

Nmap finished: 2 IP addresses (2 hosts up) scanned in 88.392 seconds

Najnovsia verzia Nmapu sa nachadza na adrese http://www.insecure.org/nmap/. Najnovsia verzia manualu je k dispozicii na adrese http://www.insecure.org/nmap/man/.

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