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Nmap Network Scanning

Nmap OS Detection DB: nmap-os-db

The nmap-os-db data file contains hundreds of examples of how different operating systems respond to Nmap's specialized OS detection probes. It is divided into blocks known as fingerprints, with each fingerprint containing an operating system's name, its general classification, and response data. Example 14.4 is an excerpt from the file showing a couple of typical fingerprints.

Example 14.4. Excerpt from nmap-os-db

Fingerprint FreeBSD 7.0
Class FreeBSD | FreeBSD | 7.X | general purpose
SEQ(SP=100-10A%GCD=1-6%ISR=108-112%TI=I%II=I%SS=S%TS=21|22)
OPS(O1=M5B4NW8NNT11%O2=M578NW8NNT11%O3=M280NW8NNT11%O4=M5B4NW8NNT11%O5=M218NW8NNT11%O6=M109NNT11)
WIN(W1=FFFF%W2=FFFF%W3=FFFF%W4=FFFF%W5=FFFF%W6=FFFF)
ECN(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%W=FFFF%O=M5B4NW8%CC=N%Q=)
T1(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%S=O%A=S+%F=AS%RD=0%Q=)
T2(R=N)
T3(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%W=FFFF%S=O%A=S+%F=AS%O=M109NW8NNT11%RD=0%Q=)
T4(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%W=0%S=A%A=Z%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)
T5(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%W=0%S=Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)
T6(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%W=0%S=A%A=Z%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)
T7(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%W=0%S=Z%A=S%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)
U1(DF=N%T=3B-45%TG=40%IPL=38%UN=0%RIPL=G%RID=G%RIPCK=G%RUCK=G%RUD=G)
IE(DFI=S%T=3B-45%TG=40%CD=S)

Fingerprint Linux 2.6.17 - 2.6.24
Class Linux | Linux | 2.6.X | general purpose
SEQ(SP=A5-D5%GCD=1-6%ISR=A7-D7%TI=Z%II=I%TS=U)
OPS(O1=M400C%O2=M400C%O3=M400C%O4=M400C%O5=M400C%O6=M400C)
WIN(W1=8018%W2=8018%W3=8018%W4=8018%W5=8018%W6=8018)
ECN(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%W=8018%O=M400C%CC=N%Q=)
T1(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%S=O%A=S+%F=AS%RD=0%Q=)
T2(R=N)
T3(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%W=8018%S=O%A=S+%F=AS%O=M400C%RD=0%Q=)
T4(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%W=0%S=A%A=Z%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)
T5(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%W=0%S=Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)
T6(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%W=0%S=A%A=Z%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)
T7(R=Y%DF=Y%T=3B-45%TG=40%W=0%S=Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)
U1(DF=N%T=3B-45%TG=40%IPL=164%UN=0%RIPL=G%RID=G%RIPCK=G%RUCK=G%RUD=G)
IE(DFI=N%T=3B-45%TG=40%CD=S)

The nmap-os-db OS database is consulted when remote OS detection is requested with the -O option. In short, Nmap sends special probes to a target system and compares the responses with the entries in the OS database. If there is a match, the database entry likely describes the target system. The process of OS detection is described fully in Chapter 8, Remote OS Detection. See the section called “Decoding the Subject Fingerprint Format” for a detailed description of the reference fingerprint format.

nmap-os-db is rarely changed by users. Adding or modifying a fingerprint is a moderately complex process and there is usually no reason ever to remove one. The best way to get an updated version of the OS database is to get the latest release of Nmap.

The OS database does not (yet) have information on every networked operating system ever made. The database grows through the contributions of Nmap users. If Nmap can't guess an OS but you know what it is, please submit the fingerprint, following the instructions in the section called “When Nmap Fails to Find a Match and Prints a Fingerprint”. Occasionally fingerprints have errors or become out of date. If you see this, consider submitting a correction as described in the section called “When Nmap Guesses Wrong”. Everyone benefits when the database is improved, and submitting your improvements keeps you from having to maintain your own fork of the file.

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