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Example Nmap output

Nmap Network Scanning

Clever Trickery

Nmap, like other active probing tools, obtains its information by sending out packets to target systems and then trying to interpret and organize any responses into useful reports. Nmap must rely on information from systems and networks that may be downright hostile environments. Some administrators take offense at being scanned, and a small percentage try to confuse or slow Nmap with active measures beyond the firewall and IDS techniques discussed previously.

Many of these active response methods are quite clever. I would argue that many are too clever, causing more problems than they solve. One such problem is exploitability. Much of this custom active response software is just a quick hack, written without careful security consideration. For example, an administrator friend of mine named Paul was quite proud of installing FakeBO on his machine. He laughed at the prospect of fooling script kiddies into thinking they found a Back Orifice infected machine to commandeer, when Paul was really just logging their attempts. The joke was on Paul when a FakeBO buffer overflow was discovered and an attacker used it to compromise his box and install a real backdoor.

The other major risk common to these technologies is displacement of time that is better spent elsewhere. Confusing attackers can be fun and gratifying, and in some cases even hampers attacks. In the end, however, these techniques are mostly security by obscurity. While they can still be beneficial, they aren't as important as more resilient technologies such as firewalls and vulnerability patching. Advanced attackers will likely see through the obfuscation anyway, and the script kiddies and worms rarely bother with reconnaissance. The daily attempted IIS exploits against my Apache web server are testament to that. These techniques should be considered only when you are already highly confident of your security posture. Too many people use them as a substitute for truly securing their networks.

Hiding Services on Obscure Ports

Occasionally administrators advocate running services on unusual ports to make it harder for attackers to find them. In particular, they note the frequency of single-port sweeps across their address space from attackers seeking out a vulnerable version of some software. Autonomous worms frequently do the same thing.

It is true that this sort of obfuscation may prevent some worms and script kiddies from finding services, but they are rarely more than a marginal threat to companies that quickly patch vulnerabilities. And companies who do not patch quickly will not be saved by this simple port obfuscation. Proponents often argue that even more skillful attackers will fall for this. Some have even posted to security lists that scanning all 65,536 TCP ports is inconceivable. They are wrong. Attackers can and do scan all TCP ports. In addition, techniques such as Nmap version detection make it easy to determine what service is listening on an unusual port. Example 11.1 shows such a scan. Notable is that it only takes eight minutes, and this is from a slow residential aDSL line in another state. From a faster machine, the same scan takes only three minutes. If the default state had been filtered, the scan would have been slower but not unreasonably so. Even if a scan takes 10 or 20 minutes, an attacker does not have to sit around watching. A targeted attack against a company can easily be left overnight, and mass attackers may leave a scanner running for weeks, periodically downloading the latest data files.

Example 11.1. An all-TCP-port version scan

# nmap -sSV -T4 -O -p0-65535 apollo.sco.com

Starting Nmap ( http://nmap.org )
Nmap scan report for apollo.sco.com (216.250.128.35) 
Not shown: 65524 closed ports
PORT      STATE    SERVICE VERSION
0/tcp     filtered unknown
21/tcp    open     ftp     WU-FTPD 2.1WU(1)+SCO-2.6.1+-sec
22/tcp    open     ssh     SSH 1.2.22 (protocol 1.5)
199/tcp   open     smux?
457/tcp   open     http    NCSA httpd 1.3
615/tcp   open     http    NCSA httpd 1.5  
1035/tcp  filtered unknown
1521/tcp  open     oracle  Oracle DB Listener 2.3.4.0.0 (for SCO System V/386)
13722/tcp open     inetd   inetd exec err /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bpjava-msvc
13782/tcp open     inetd   inetd exec err /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/bpcd
13783/tcp open     inetd   inetd exec err /usr/openv/bin/vopied
64206/tcp open     unknown
Device type: general purpose
Running: SCO UnixWare
OS details: SCO UnixWare 7.0.0 or OpenServer 5.0.4-5.0.6

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 501.90 seconds

The biggest downside to this approach is a major inconvenience to legitimate users. Some services, such as SMTP and DNS, almost always have to run on their well-known ports for practical reasons. Even for services such as HTTP and SSH that can be more easily changed, doing so means that all users must remember an unusual port number such as 52,147 whenever they connect to the service. When there are several hidden services, it is particularly difficult to remember which is which. Using different ports on each machine becomes even more confusing, but standardizing on unusual port mappings across the organization reduces the purported benefit of this scheme. Attackers may notice that SSH is always at 52,147. The end result is that all-port Nmap scans against your servers may increase, as frustrated legitimate users try to find where essential services are hidden. Less savvy users may flood you with phone calls instead.

Port Knocking

A technique called port knocking has recently become popular as a way to hide services from potential attackers. The method is well described on the front page of http://www.portknocking.org/:

Port knocking is a method of establishing a connection to a networked computer that has no open ports. Before a connection is established, ports are opened using a port knock sequence, which is a series of connection attempts to closed ports. A remote host generates and sends an authentic knock sequence in order to manipulate the server's firewall rules to open one or more specific ports. These manipulations are mediated by a port knock daemon, running on the server, which monitors the firewall log file for connection attempts that can be translated into authentic knock sequences. Once the desired ports are opened, the remote host can establish a connection and begin a session. Another knock sequence may be used to trigger the closing of the port.

This method is not brand new, but it exploded in popularity in 2003 when Martin Krzywinski coined the phrase port knocking, wrote an implementation, created the extensive web site, and wrote articles about it for Sys Admin and Linux Journal magazines. Port knocking adds a second layer of protection to services, though authentication is usually weaker than that provided by primary services such as SSH. Implementations are usually subject to sniffing and replay attacks, and often suffer from brute force and denial of service threats as well.

The upside is a service concealment which is much stronger than the simple and ineffective obscure ports technique described previously. A port competently hidden through port knocking is nearly impossible to discover using active probes such as those sent by Nmap. On the other hand, sniffer-based systems such as intrusion detection systems and passive network mappers trivially detect this scheme.

Deciding whether to implement port knocking requires an analysis of the benefits and costs applicable to the proposed implementation. Service concealment is only beneficial for a small set of applications. The motivation is to prevent attackers from connecting to (and exploiting) vulnerable services, while still allowing connections from authorized users all over the world. If only certain IP addresses need to connect, firewall restrictions limiting connections to those specific IPs are usually a better approach. In an ideal world, applications would securely handle authentication themselves and there would be no need to hide them to prevent exploitation. Unfortunately, even security-conscious programs such as SSH have suffered numerous remotely exploitable pre-authentication flaws. While these bugs should be fixed as soon as possible in any case, port knocking may provide an extra window of time before a new bug is exploited. After all, some SSH exploits spread underground long before official patches were available. Then when a bug is announced, even the most conscientious administrator may require several hours or days to learn about the bug, test the fix, and locate and patch all vulnerable instances. The response time of a home computer owner may be even longer. After all, the vast majority of computer users do not subscribe to Bugtraq.

The good guys are not the only ones who benefit from service concealment. It is at least as popular (if not more so) for gray hat and downright criminal uses. Many ISPs restrict users from running any server daemons such as web or SSH services. Customers could hide a personal SSH daemon or web server (only for very limited use, as the public could not easily connect) using port knocking technology. Similarly, my friend Tom's employer only permitted connections from home using a Windows-only VPN client. Tom responded by setting up a port knocking system (before it was called that) which, upon receiving the appropriate probes, set up a reverse SSH tunnel from his work server back to his home Linux box. This allowed him to work from home with full access to the work network and without having to suffer the indignities of using Windows. It is worth re-iterating that the service provider in both the ISP and employer examples could have detected the subterfuge using a sniffer or netflow. Segueing into even darker uses, computer criminals frequently use techniques like these to hide backdoors in systems that they have compromised. Script kiddies may just leave a blatant SSH daemon or even raw root shell listening on some high port, vulnerable to detection by the next Nmap scan. More cautious attackers use concealment techniques including port knocking in their backdoors and rootkits.

While the service concealment provided by this system can be valuable, it comes with many limitations. Services intended for public use are inappropriate, since no one is going to install a special knock client just to visit your web site. In addition, publicizing the access instructions would defeat the system's primary purpose. Non-public service should usually be blocked by a firewall rather than shielded with port knocking. When a group of people need access, VPNs are often a better solution as they offer encryption and user-level access control. VPNs are also built to handle real-world networks, where packets can be dropped, duplicated, and re-ordered. A relatively simple probe using the Portknocking.Org implementation can require more than 30 port probes, all of which must arrive at the destination in order. For this many probes, you will need a special client. Using telnet or a web browser is too tedious. Additionally, all firewalls in the path must allow you to connect to these unusual ports. Given these restrictions and hassles, using a VPN may be just as convenient.

An additional risk is that port knocking implementations are still immature. The best-known one, written by Martin Krzywinski, warns on the download page that this is a prototype and includes the bare minimum to get started. Do not use this for production environments. Also remember that proactive scanning to inventory your own network will be more difficult with programs such as this installed.

Do not let this long list of limitations dissuade you from even considering port knocking. It may be appropriate for specific circumstances, particularly those related to hidden backdoors or remote administration of a personal machine.

Honeypots and Honeynets

An increasingly popular method for confusing attackers is to place bait systems on a network and monitor them for attacks. These are known as honeypots. I am a member of the Honeynet Project, which installs networks of these for research purposes. Many corporations have deployed these systems for corporate security purposes, though doing so is risky. The extensive monitoring required makes them high-maintenance and there is always a risk that attackers will break in and use the machines to commit serious crimes. Lower maintenance solutions, such as Honeyd described in the next section, or even an IDS, may be more appropriate. In any case, honeypots are designed to catch more invasive attacks than simple Nmap scans, so they are not discussed further.

OS Spoofing

Several programs have been developed specifically to trick Nmap OS detection. They manipulate the host operating system to support custom responses to Nmap probes. In this way, a Linux PC can be made to resemble an Apple LaserWriter printer or even a webcam. IP Personality, released in 2000, is one of the most popular systems. It extends the Linux Netfilter framework to support these shenanigans. Unfortunately, it has not been updated since April 2002 and may not work on kernel versions beyond 2.4.18.

Tool availability alone does not make OS spoofing a good idea. One has to justify the effort somehow. The IP Personality FAQ avoids the question Why would you need this? by responding that If you ask this, then you don't. Nevertheless, some people find it valuable enough to write and use these tools. One reason is that specific OS information makes it easier for attackers to infer vulnerabilities on your network, and also helps decide what sort of exploit to run. Of course the vulnerability itself is the real problem there, and should be fixed. Other people run this sort of tool because they are embarrassed about the OS they run, or they are extremely privacy conscious. If your operating system is in a legal gray area because some company is claiming IP infringement and filing suits against users, OS spoofing might protect against such a nuisance suit.

One serious problem with masking a host OS this way is that it can cause security and functionality problems. Nmap tests for several important security properties, such as TCP initial sequence number and IP identification number predictability. Emulating a different system, such as a printer, may require weakening these number sequences so that they are predictable and vulnerable to all the attacks that implies. The obscurity gained by spoofing your operating system fingerprint is not worth sacrificing valuable security mechanisms. This sort of spoofing can also cripple functionality. Many Nmap OS detection tests involve asking the system what TCP options are supported. Pretending not to support certain options such as timestamps and window scaling will remove the efficiency benefits of those options. Pretending to support unavailable options can be disastrous.

In Example 11.2, Nmap is fooled by IP Personality into believing a Linux box is really a Sega Dreamcast game console. It is from a paper entitled A practical approach for defeating Nmap OS-Fingerprinting by David Barroso Berrueta. That excellent paper includes far more examples, as well as detailed configuration instructions. It also describes many similar systems, with handy warnings such as the code is not very stable. I loaded the module and in a few moments my Linux box got frozen.

Example 11.2. Deceiving Nmap with IP Personality

# nmap -sS -O -oN nmap2.log 192.168.0.19

Nmap scan report for 192.168.0.19
(The 1597 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
Port       State       Service
22/tcp     open        ssh
25/tcp     open        smtp
80/tcp     open        http
143/tcp    open        imap
Remote operating system guess: Sega Dreamcast
Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 5.886 seconds

A newer and more popular program for operating system spoofing (among other features) is Honeyd. It is actively maintained by author Niels Provos and offers several major benefits over IP Personality. One is that it is much easier to configure. Almost 100 configuration lines were required for the Dreamcast spoofing using IP Personality, above. Honeyd, on the other hand, simply reads the Nmap OS detection database and emulates any OS the user chooses. (Be aware that Honeyd uses a database from Nmap's 1st generation OS detection, which was discontinued in 2007.) Honeyd also solves the security and functionality problems of OS spoofing by creating synthetic hosts for the emulation. You can ask Honeyd to take over hundreds of unused IP addresses in an organization. It responds to probes sent to those IPs based on its configuration. This eliminates the security and functionality risks of trying to mask a host's own TCP stack. You are creating a bunch of synthetic hosts instead, so this does not help obscure the OS of existing hosts. The synthetic hosts basically constitute a low-maintenance honeynet that can be watched for attacks. It is mostly intended for research purposes, such as using the worldwide network of Honeyd installations to identify new worms and track spammer activity.

As with other techniques in this section, I recommend experimenting with OS spoofing only when completely satisfied by your security posture. Spoofing a single OS, or even adding hundreds of decoy Honeyd instances, is no substitute for patching vulnerable systems. Many attackers (and especially worms) do not even bother with OS detection before sending exploit code.

It is also worth noting that these systems are easy to detect by skilled attackers. It is extraordinarily hard to present a convincing facade, given all of application and TCP stack differences between operating systems. Nobody will believe that the system in Example 11.2, “Deceiving Nmap with IP Personality” offering IMAP, SMTP, and SSH is really a Dreamcast running its native OS. In addition, a bug in all versions up to 0.8 allowed for simple Honeyd identification with a single probe packet. There are also many TCP characteristics that Honeyd cannot yet handle. Those can be used to detect Honeyd, though Nmap does not automate this work. If Honeyd becomes widespread, detection functionality will likely be added to Nmap.

Deception programs such as Honeyd are just one reason that Nmap users should interpret Nmap results carefully and watch for inconsistencies, particularly when scanning networks that you do not control.

Tar Pits

Rather than trick attackers, some people aim for just slowing them down. Tar pits have long been popular methods for slowing Internet worms and spammers. Some administrators use TCP techniques such as zero-sized receive windows or slowly trickling data back byte by byte. LaBrea is a popular implementation of this. Others use application-level techniques such as long delays before responding to SMTP commands. While these are mostly used by anti-spammers, similar techniques can be used to slow Nmap scans. For example, limiting the rate of RST packets sent by closed ports can dramatically slow scanners down.

Reactive Port Scan Detection

We previously discussed scan detection using tools such as Scanlogd. Other tools go much further than that, and actually respond to the scans. Some people propose attacking back by launching exploits or denial of service attacks against the scan source. This is a terrible idea for many reasons. For one, scans are often forged. If the source address is accurate, it may be a previous victim that the attacker is using as a scapegoat. Or the scan may be part of an Internet research survey or come from a legitimate employee or customer. Even if the source address is a computer belonging to an actual attacker, striking back may disrupt innocent systems and routers along the path. It may also be illegal.

While the idea of attacking back is widely shunned in the security community, there is much more interest in responding to detected attacks by adjusting firewall rules to block the offending IP address. The idea is to prevent them from following up on the scan with an actual attack. There are several risks in this approach. One is that you show your hand. It will be obvious to attackers that they have been blocked, and most have plenty of other IP addresses they can use to continue probing. They will then know about your reactive system, and could escalate their own attacks. A more important problem is that scans are so easily forged. the section called “Misleading Intrusion Detection Systems” describes several methods for doing so. When an attacker notices the block, he may spoof scans from important systems, such as major web sites and DNS servers. A target network which then blocks those IPs will be committing a denial of service attack on itself. Restricting firewall blocks to scans that initiate a full TCP connection reduces the spoofing problem, but that fails to stop even the default Nmap SYN scan.

Escalating Arms Race

While the primary focus of this book is on open-source tools, a number of commercial vendors have introduced products that attempt to deceive Nmap. One example is the Cisco Security Agent. The evaluation guide claims the following protections against Nmap.

Network Mapper (Nmap) identifies which devices are present on a network and what operating system and services they are running by sending out a series of network probes. The presence of a device on the network and the ports it is running are both announced by its response to Nmap probes. The pattern of error messages returned identifies the operating system. Nmap is surprisingly accurate. It is frequently used at the initial stage of an attack or investigation to determine which systems might respond to an attacker's exploits.

Expected outcome of Nmap scan against Cisco Security Agent protected systems: Nmap is unable to identify the target operating system of systems running the default server or default desktop policies. Nmap scans appear to hang while its security tests timeout. Nmap scans against systems not protected by Cisco Security Agent report results very quickly

I am investigating how CSA works, and whether Nmap can automatically detect and adjust for it. Scanning technology is an arms race. Open source and commercial companies will continue to create products designed to slow down, block, or deceive Nmap and other tools. Meanwhile, Nmap continually improves, developing resiliency in the face of these challenges.

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