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Example Nmap output

Nmap Network Scanning

TCP Window Scan (-sW)

Window scan is exactly the same as ACK scan except that it exploits an implementation detail of certain systems to differentiate open ports from closed ones, rather than always printing unfiltered when a RST is returned. It does this by examining the TCP Window value of the RST packets returned. On some systems, open ports use a positive window size (even for RST packets) while closed ones have a zero window. Window scan sends the same bare ACK probe as ACK scan, interpreting the results as shown in Table 5.6.

Table 5.6. How Nmap interprets responses to a Window scan ACK probe

Probe ResponseAssigned State
TCP RST response with non-zero window fieldopen
TCP RST response with zero window fieldclosed
No response received (even after retransmissions)filtered
ICMP unreachable error (type 3, code 1, 2, 3, 9, 10, or 13)filtered

This scan relies on an implementation detail of a minority of systems out on the Internet, so you can't always trust it. Systems that don't support it will usually return all ports closed. Of course, it is possible that the machine really has no open ports. If most scanned ports are closed but a few common port numbers (such as 22, 25, and 53) are open, the system is most likely susceptible. Occasionally, systems will even show the exact opposite behavior. If your scan shows 997 open ports and three closed or filtered ports, then those three may very well be the truly open ones.

While this scan is not suited for every situation, it can be quite useful on occasion. Recall Example 5.12, “FIN scan of Docsrv”, which shows many open|filtered ports not found in a basic SYN scan. The problem is that we can't distinguish between open and filtered ports with that FIN scan. The previous section showed that we could distinguish them by combining FIN and ACK scan results. In this case, a Window scan makes it even easier by not requiring the FIN scan results, as shown in Example 5.17.

Example 5.17. Window scan of docsrv.caldera.com

# nmap -sW -T4 docsrv.caldera.com

Starting Nmap ( http://nmap.org )
Nmap scan report for docsrv.caldera.com (
Not shown: 961 closed ports
7/tcp     open     echo
9/tcp     open     discard
11/tcp    open     systat
13/tcp    open     daytime
15/tcp    open     netstat
19/tcp    open     chargen
21/tcp    open     ftp
22/tcp    open     ssh
23/tcp    open     telnet
25/tcp    open     smtp
37/tcp    open     time
79/tcp    open     finger
80/tcp    open     http
110/tcp   open     pop3
111/tcp   open     rpcbind
135/tcp   filtered msrpc
[14 open ports omitted for brevity]
1434/tcp  filtered ms-sql-m
2000/tcp  open     callbook
2766/tcp  open     listen
3000/tcp  open     ppp
3306/tcp  open     mysql
6112/tcp  open     dtspc
32770/tcp open     sometimes-rpc3
32771/tcp open     sometimes-rpc5
32772/tcp open     sometimes-rpc7

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 7.30 seconds

These results are exactly what Ereet wanted! The same 39 interesting ports are shown as with the FIN scan, but this time it distinguishes between the two filtered ports (MS-SQL and MSRPC) and the 37 that are actually open. These are the same results Ereet obtained by combining FIN and ACK scan results together in the previous section. Verifying results for consistency is another good reason for trying multiple scan types against a target network.

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