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Nmap Network Scanning

TCP ACK Scan (-sA)

This scan is different than the others discussed so far in that it never determines open (or even open|filtered) ports. It is used to map out firewall rulesets, determining whether they are stateful or not and which ports are filtered.

ACK scan is enabled by specifying the -sA option. Its probe packet has only the ACK flag set (unless you use --scanflags). When scanning unfiltered systems, open and closed ports will both return a RST packet. Nmap then labels them as unfiltered, meaning that they are reachable by the ACK packet, but whether they are open or closed is undetermined. Ports that don't respond, or send certain ICMP error messages back, are labeled filtered. Table 5.5 provides the full details.

Table 5.5. How Nmap interprets responses to an ACK scan probe

Probe ResponseAssigned State
TCP RST responseunfiltered
No response received (even after retransmissions)filtered
ICMP unreachable error (type 3, code 1, 2, 3, 9, 10, or 13)filtered

ACK scan usage is similar to most other scan types in that you simply add a single option flag, -sA in this case. Example 5.15 shows an ACK scan against Scanme.

Example 5.15. A typical ACK Scan

krad# nmap -sA -T4 scanme.nmap.org

Starting Nmap ( http://nmap.org )
Nmap scan report for scanme.nmap.org (
Not shown: 994 filtered ports
22/tcp  unfiltered ssh
25/tcp  unfiltered smtp
53/tcp  unfiltered domain
70/tcp  unfiltered gopher
80/tcp  unfiltered http
113/tcp unfiltered auth

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 4.01 seconds

One of the most interesting uses of ACK scanning is to differentiate between stateful and stateless firewalls. See the section called “ACK Scan” for how to do this and why you would want to.

Sometimes a combination of scan types can be used to glean extra information from a system. As an example, start by reviewing the FIN scan of Docsrv in Example 5.12, “FIN scan of Docsrv”. Nmap finds the closed ports in that case, but 39 of them are listed as open|filtered because Nmap cannot determine between those two states with a FIN scan. Now look at the ACK scan of the same host in Example 5.16, “An ACK scan of Docsrv”. Two of those 39 previously unidentified ports are shown to be filtered. The other 37 (based on the default port line above the table) are in the state unfiltered. That means open or closed. If one scan type identifies a port as open or filtered and another identifies it as open or closed, logic dictates that it must be open. By combining both scan types, we have learned that 37 ports on Docsrv are open, two are filtered, and 961 are closed. While logical deduction worked well here to determine port states, that technique can't always be counted on. It assumes that different scan types always return a consistent state for the same port, which is inaccurate. Firewalls and TCP stack properties can cause different scans against the same machine to differ markedly. Against Docsrv, we have seen that a SYN scan considers the SSH port (tcp/22) filtered, while an ACK scan considers it unfiltered. When exploring boundary conditions and strangely configured networks, interpreting Nmap results is an art that benefits from experience and intuition.

Example 5.16. An ACK scan of Docsrv

# nmap -sA -T4 docsrv.caldera.com

Starting Nmap ( http://nmap.org )
Nmap scan report for docsrv.caldera.com (
Not shown: 998 unfiltered ports
135/tcp  filtered msrpc
1434/tcp filtered ms-sql-m

Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 7.20 seconds

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